July is a fantastic month for birding. Some species will have already finished breeding and will be making their way south with this years offspring to their wintering grounds. This can bring lots of rare and exciting birds to the UK- particularly around the coasts, but also to some inland locations.
Spotted Redshank by John Harding/BTO
The majority of the return migration happening at this time of year involves waders. First come the failed breeders, then the adults that have successfully bred, and then finally the young who have to navigate their way to the wintering grounds with no previous experience. Species whose numbers will increase over the next couple of months include Green Sandpiper, with the BirdTrack reporting rate almost doubling in the last two weeks, Greenshank, and Common and Wood Sandpipers. Numbers of Ruffs reported this week were also higher than average, possibly an indication of a poor breeding season, and are set to increase further until late August. Spotted Redshanks are one of the first waders to return with some birds heading back in late June and throughout July and in to August. Interestingly, the male Spotted Redshanks stay to raise the young in Scandinavia whilst the females set off earlier- a reversal of the typical gender roles in birds. Most of the males and young leave Scandinavia in the second half of July.
BirdTrack Green Sandpiper reporting rate graph
Our Swifts didn’t arrive on time this year, and whilst many of us were concerned that they wouldn’t return, they gradually appeared about two weeks late and increased to near-normal reporting levels compared to recent years, although still a little below the historical average. Mixed groups of Adults and young can be seen gathering over towns and cities before they depart for the winter. It will be a shorter stay this year, but at least they did come eventually!
Little Gulls by Andy Mason
Another species increasing at many coastal sites right now is the Little Gull: this species should be searched for in any gull flock, where its small size makes it stand out. At some regular sites, such as Hornsea Mere in East Yorkshire, triple figures have been noted. This species also has a tendency to occur at inland reservoirs and lakes where it can be seen hawking over the water, often dipping down to take insects from the surface. In July and August, Yellow-legged Gulls from the Mediterranean reach the UK as they disperse around the continent, providing birders with quite an identification challenge. Numbers of UK reports of this species have more than doubled over the last week and they are still rising, so this really is the time to scan gull flocks for these too.
BirdTrack Yellow-legged Gull reporting rate graph
Scarcer birds being noted currently include Spoonbill and Roseate Tern. The Roseate Tern is a scarce breeding bird within the UK and the birds being reported away from the breeding locations at this time of year will be a mixture of failed breeding birds from the UK and those from colonies further afield, soon they will be leaving our coasts for those of West Africa. Although Spoonbills can be seen here in all months of the year, many family groups visit the UK in July, right after breeding, look out for younger birds with pale bills and black wingtips.
It’s also worth mentioning Cuckoos. The adults have left the UK already as they have no parental responsibilities they are able to leave early. Two of the satellite-tagged Cuckoos (Victor and Bowie) have already crossed the Sahara Desert! The other tagged birds are currently in Spain and France, with one on an island in Croatia. The latest to leave the UK, Carlton II, left on the 2 July - this goes to show just how quickly Cuckoos can leave the country after breeding. You can follow them all as they make their way south.
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